Canada is the second largest country in the world (by landmass), covering six different time zones (-3.5 to -8). Due to the amount of land involved, there are great differences between different parts of the country. Parts of the country are cold throughout the year, whilst others are very similar to the neighbouring USA. Formally, Canada has a constitutional monarchy, officially headed by Queen Elizabeth the Second, although is completely separate from the UK. Ottawa is the nation's capital, and is home to the government.
There are six regions in Canada: the Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Prairies, British Columbia and The North. A drive from one side of the country to the other would take over a week!
Canada's passenger rail service is operated by Via Rail, although some American Amtrak services operate internationally between the two countries. Generally, trains within Canada aren't that popular, and driving is certainly the dominant way of getting around. Trains can also be very expensive and not particularly convenient.
Coach services within the country are frequent, and operated by a range of different companies, including: Coach Canada, Orleans Express, Acadian, and Greyhound Canada, which also has connecting services to the USA. As a law, only one company can offer a service on a particular route, so there is therefore no competition between operators, which can result in expensive fares. Generally bus travel in the country is safe, although like anywhere, be careful of your belongings and try not to annoy any fellow travellers!
There are also ferry services within Canada, but also linking with the USA. International services run to Canada from Alaska and Washington, whilst Bay Ferries operates a service between Nova Scotia and Maine.